1. The Communicative Approach
The communicative approach is based on the idea that learning language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning. When learners are involved in real communication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will be used, and this will allow them to learn to use the language.
Practising question forms by asking learners to find out personal information about their colleagues is an example of the communicative approach, as it involves meaningful communication.
In the classroom
Classroom activities guided by the communicative approach are characterised by trying to produce meaningful and real communication, at all levels. As a result there may be more emphasis on skills than systems, lessons are more learner-centred, and there may be use of authentic materials.
The main focus is on the ability of the learner to communicate effectively in the target language, rather than achieving grammatical perfection. The communicative approach centres on the learner’s needs, objectives, motivations and preferred learning style. It places an emphasis on the greatest possible (but not necessarily exclusive) use of the target language as a means of instruction and communication during the lessons. We have developed the theme “Arabic Holiday” teaching students in a very easy way to communicate in daily bases without achieving grammatical perfection such as booking, shopping, buying, phone call, directions a...]
2. Cognitive strategies
Cognitive strategies are one type of learning strategy that learners use in order to learn more successfully. These include repetition, organising new language, summarising meaning, guessing meaning from context, using imagery for memorisation. All of these strategies involve deliberate manipulation of language to improve learning. Classifications of learning strategies distinguish between cognitive strategies and two other types, metacognitive strategies (organising learning), and social/ affective strategies (which enable interaction).
A learner remembers new words by visualising them represented in a memorable or ridiculous situation. This makes it easier and faster to recall these words.
In the classroom
Activities which can be described as cognitive strategies include making mind maps, visualisation, association, mnemonics, using clues in reading comprehension, underlining key words, scanning and self-testing and monitoring.